Anal Cancer Screening, Pap Smear

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Anal cancer and anal cancer death rates have been steadily rising over the last 10 years. The majority of anal cancers are caused by persistent infection of the anal canal with high-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide.  

The risk factors for developing anal cancer include age, smoking, infection with high-risk HPV strains, anal warts, receptive anal sex and HIV. It is believed that HPV-related anal cancer can be prevented via primary (HPV vaccination) and screening with Pap smear test and examination with an anoscope.

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