Testosterone has a number of important effects on the cardiovascular system.
In men, Testosterone levels begin to decrease after a peak at age 30, and this decrease has been associated with an increase in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular risk.
Low Testosterone levels in men increase the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Reduced Testosterone levels in men with congestive heart failure has been shown to have bad prognosis and to have increased mortality. Studies have reported a reduced heart risk with higher Testosterone concentration in blood, improvement of known heart disease risk factors with Testosterone therapy, and reduced death rate in Testosterone deficient men who underwent Testosterone replacement therapy compared to untreated men.
Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been shown to improve heart attack risk in men with coronary artery disease, improve exercise capacity in men with congestive heart failure, and improve blood sugar levels, and insulin resistance in diabetic and pre-diabetic men.